The physics laws governing these processes including the Planck Law and the Kirchhoff Law. Climate PhysicsAdvised Prerequisite: Senior or graduate standing in science or engineering Instruction Mode: Online Synchronous Introduction to physical mechanisms that determine climate, including relevant atmospheric, hydrologic, cryospheric, solar orbital, volcanic and human processes. Aerosol Physics and ChemistryPrerequisite: senior or graduate standing Introduction to fundamental principles and latest developments in aerosol science. The purpose of the course is to provide fundamental grounding in fluid dynamics and in fundamental mathematical technique at the level required to do serious quantitative graduate research that involves fluid dynamics effects. Instruction Mode: Online SynchronousA graduate level introduction to physical and aeronomical processes in the space environment. Instruction Mode: Online SynchronousThe first part of the course will provide detailed information on how space policy is developed in the United States and the international space community and how these policies result in specific missions. Instruction Mode: Hybrid Synchronous, Online Synchronous Systematic and comprehensive review of spacecraft and space mission design and key technologies for space missions. Space Mission Design and Implementation on a High-Altitude BalloonPrerequisite: senior or graduate standing. Inverse Methods for Remote SensingAdvised prerequisite: Graduate standing. Advanced Data Analysis TechniquesAdvised prerequisite: graduate standing Objective methods are introduced for analyzing climate data with inherent spatial and or temporal correlation scales. The Art of Climate ModelingPrerequisite: graduate standing, basic understanding of Atmospheric dynamics and the general circulation of the atmosphere Unix higher level programming language numerical methods. Instruction Mode: Online AsynchronousSpace science and application mission related team project. Climate Practicum IAdvised Prerequisite: Senior or graduate standing. Instruction Mode: Online Asynchronous, In-Person AsynchronousIntroduction to individual and team research on real-world problems in the area of applied climate. Climate Practicum IIPrerequisite: Senior or graduate standing and CLIMATE 591. Magnetosphere and Solar WindPrerequisite: Graduate standing. Instruction Mode: Online Synchronous General principles of magnetohydrodynamics theory of the expanding atmosphere properties of solar wind, interaction of solar wind with the magnetosphere of the Earth and other planets bow shock and magnetotail, trapped particles, auroras.